WElcome to North Georgia Astronomers
in the galaxy that aid in the exploration of our existing world.
North Georgia Astronomical Observatory
Through astronomical observations, determine when the area will have a clear sky and forecast unforeseen weather.
When the sky is clear and transparent, you can see a clear view of the galaxy and get much finer and brighter images while observing.
Seeing is the deterioration of an astronomical material's image caused by stormy airflow control in Earth's atmosphere that could become noticeable.
Promote astronomy by creating a dark sky preserve, usually around a park or observatory that limits different lighting pollution with the goal of conserving the dark sky.
Investigate the powerful and strong winds found on various planets throughout the galaxy and compare them to the atmosphere on Earth.
Learn about the importance of humidity in an astronomical observatory, which negatively affects imaging and observing the galaxy.
THE MILLENNIUM PROJECT of NORTH GEORGIA ASTRONOMERS
successes we’ve had over the years!
North Georgia Astronomers Discussion Group
connecting with expert astronomers and learning more
about the universe around you.
Major Events Recorded in Astronomy
Astronomy is a vast branch of physics whose study is a never-ending one! As far as we stay in this universe, the study of planets (astronomy) will continue to exist. The modern era has recorded some breakthrough innovations marked in the calendars as historical discovery events. The same was followed in ancient times when astronomers and scientists discovered objects and calculated theories based on their predictions and speculations. Here are some of the important events marked in the history of astronomy, which has helped scientists and astronomers worldwide create brake throughs.
The Big Bang Theory
The beginning of the universe is unknown. Even with the latest technologies, it is impossible to predict how it started. However, many scientists believe it began 13.7 billion years ago, with a massive explosion in space, now called the Big Bang Theory. The theory states that all the matter we see today was compressed into a tiny dot. Over time, the dot expanded into a massive explosion and created the universe we live in today.
The Heliocentric Model
This model was discovered by Copernicus in 1543 when he proposed that the Earth was at the center of the solar system and stated that all the planets, including the sun, revolved around it. Although his prediction was wrong, it gave humanity an idea of revolution and rotation.
The movement of stars and planets
The idea and the movement of rotation and revolution of the planets, as with billions of stars in the sky, was depicted thousands of years before the Mayan, Indian, Chinese, Egyptian, and Greek revolutions. Nevertheless, many scientists and early astronomers were involved in this discovery, and it is challenging to point just at one of them.
It is believed that the telescope maker – William Herschel, along with his sister, discovered and mapped the heavens, which were composed of thousands of stars, and the formation of nebulae in the process, between 1780 and 1834. He also discovered Uranus and proposed another name, GeorgiumSidus, which could have probably saved centuries of terrible jokes.
Theory of Relativity
The famous scientist Albert Einstein proposed the theory of relativity in 1915. The theory states that mass has the ability to wrap both time and space. This means large masses like the stars have the capability to bend light in a specific direction.
Dark matter, which is different from dark energy, is a matter proposed to explain the gravitational effects and their movements within the galaxies. When scientists and astronomers measured the mass of galaxies and orbital speeds of the stars within a particular universe, they noticed differences between the expected and calculated results. This led to the discovery of dark matter, which cannot be detected presently with our instruments and technologies.
Important Tools Used in Astronomy
Astronomy is a branch of physics that studies celestial bodies through observatories. Although several tools are used in the process, one of the primary tools is the telescope, which is used to magnify images that are light years away from the Earth. Hence, it is undoubtedly, one of the most important instruments used to study and analyze celestial objects. Furthermore, telescopes not only help in observing heavenly bodies, but they also help in analyzing the radiation signals caught by them.
The first telescope was invented by Galileo in the 17th century, which revolutionized the study of astronomy to study extraterrestrial bodies. Before the telescope’s invention, magnifying objects were never used to study and observe celestial bodies. Since then, many optical telescopes have been invented to learn about objects in electromagnetic spectra. In addition, other tools like cameras, charge-couple devices, the spectrograph, electronic computers, spacecraft, rockets, and many other instruments are used in conjunction with the telescopes to understand celestial bodies in the solar system, Milky Way galaxy, and beyond. In this article, let’s learn more about the different types of telescopes and their brief working principles.
These are also called refractors, which bend light when passing from one medium to another (from air to glass, etc.). Refractors are used to observe the moon, Jupiter, Mars, and other binary stars. The light from a celestial object passes through the objective lens and is inverted at the focal plane. At the eyepiece lens, the observer can view the magnified and inverted image of the celestial body. Many refractors also have a small lens after the eyepiece to erect the picture upright. Since any disturbances and shakiness of the telescope will also be magnified, these telescopes are mounted firmly on a platform.
These telescopes reflect the light back to the focal point and generally use parabolic or concave spherical mirrors to examine light in the visible region of the EM spectrum. In many ways, reflecting telescopes provide more advantages over refractors. One of the main advantages is that they are not subjected to chromatic aberration, making it easy for astronomers to capture the right colors. The Newtonian reflector, where a mirror is placed at a 45-degree angle near the eyepiece, is the most widely used and popular of all the reflecting telescopes.
The Schmidt telescope
In 1930, Bernhard Schmidt, an optician at the Hamburg Observatory in Germany, discovered the Schmidt telescope. This telescope allows astronomers to photograph the larger celestial areas of an object, inducing the best features of both the telescopes mentioned above. It was first used by the National Geographic Society, which made use of a 1.2-meter Schmidt telescope to photograph the blue and green regions of the northern sky in the visible spectrum.
6 Crazy Facts About Space
Water is Everywhere in Space
You might think that water is scarce in space. Well, guess what? There is ample water in the area. Asteroids and Comets have water as a standard component in them. In addition, space scientists found ice on the craters of Mercury and the Moon. NASA scientists feel that Europa, Jupiter’s moon, has liquid water below its frozen surface. Although the size of Europa is much smaller than Earth, it might harbour a deep ocean in it.
Uranus tilts on its side!
As per NASA, Uranus rotates on its sides. As a result, it turns 90 degrees sideways compared to other planets. As a result, the sun shines directly on the Earth’s north and south poles. It means that half of Uranus does not see the sun for almost twenty years! One believes that Uranus went through a massive collision leading to such exciting changes.
No beautiful orange sunsets for Mars
According to Mars Rover’s first colour photograph in 2015, the sunset on Mars appears blue. NASA says that the reason for this is that the dust consists of fine particles in the Martian atmosphere that allow blue light to penetrate easily compared to other more extended wavelength colours like yellow, orange, and red.
Space is full of Space Trash.
Space is full of rocket parts, dead satellites, and other related junk that orbits the Earth ten times more rapidly than an effective bullet. It can be hazardous as a collision can cause other objects to collide. Even space travelling can get tricky because of the mist of trash rotating around the Earth. The Hollywood hit “Gravity,” starring George Clooney and Sandra Bullock, is based on this issue.
Gone in 15 seconds without a spacesuit
Space is devoid of pressure causing the air to expand. As a result, your lung will grow and tear through the tissues. It will eventually cause your body to use up all the oxygen in merely 15 seconds, making wearing a spacesuit a must in space. Other than this, it can also cause boiling of blood, loss of bowel control, and exploding capillaries.
Space is black
Sun is a massive ball of fire, and stars are everywhere in the night sky. So then, why does space appear black? The universe is continuously expanding. It isn’t fixed or perpetual. There is a continuous evolution happening, a forever rhythmic movement causing the stars to move, which is why we do not see them continuously.
Space is a mystery and an ever-evolving science that attracts people of all ages. One can only dive in for interesting facts about the cosmic details of space.
Astronomy – An Oldest Scientific Discipline
Astronomy is believed to be one of the oldest disciplines, which evolved from humankind when they showed their fascination with the night sky by counting stars. Despite the latest innovations and technologies in the modern era, it is still impossible for people to study the entire space thoroughly. As the study of the universe extends, things beyond our solar system are getting more complex to understand.
Over time, sensitive telescopes have opened a new study area to detect the weirdest objects and signals from space – like supernovas, dwarf planets, black and white holes, etc.
History of Astronomy
People of ancient times were fascinated by the sky and the objects in the sky. Although their livelihood and lifestyle revolved around the sun, stars, and the moon, they were seldom aware of the extensiveness of the universe.
The study of astronomy began in the middle ages in Asia and the Islamic world when scholars built instruments to measure the position of objects in the sky. One of the most important breakthroughs was the invention of the telescope by Galileo in the 17th century. It helped us understand our solar system and study and observe other plants.
Scientists could calculate the distance between the earth and the star in the 18th century, and the advent of capturing images beyond the earth was seen in the 19th century. Finally, the invention of spectroscopy in the second half of the 19th century opened new dimensions of research and urged astronomers to study the chemical composition of objects in the sky. Suddenly, astronomy was not just limited to our location in the universe but became a part of studying the universe and its objects.
Astronomy in the modern era
In the early part of the 20th century, astronomers wondered if the Milky Way was the only galaxy or if there were other such galaxies beyond the stars. This question was answered by Edwin Hubble, who discovered the Andromeda nebula, now called the Andromeda galaxy, millions of light years away from the earth and has its own milky way. This discovery opened new eyes in the field. They also observed that the galaxies were turning away from the earth, which concluded that the universe expanded after the Big Bang Theory.
Many breakthrough discoveries were made in the 20th century, including landing on the moon, launching the first spacecraft, Sputnik, and many more. The James Webb Space Telescope was launched in December 2021 to view objects in deep space. It is believed that the more astronomers dig into space, the more questions arise while keeping the old ones unanswered.
In today’s world, modern astronomy has many subsets and is divided into many branches, like:
- Planetary astronomy
- Stellar astronomy
- Galactic astronomy
Black holes: Everything you need to know
A black hole is a place of space where gravity is so strong that no particles, not even light, can pass through it. Gravity is extremely strong because the mass has been squeezed into an infinitely tiny space. As the light cannot even break free, hence the name is the ‘black’ hole. Black holes cannot be observed directly. Only Space telescopes with special tools can help find black holes. Using special space tools shows that the stars that are very much nearer to black holes act differently than other stars because of the enormous gravitational field.
Formation of Black Holes
A black hole can be formed by the death of a massive star that has retained at least three times the solar masses. Stars with smaller masses evolve into less compressed bodies, either white dwarf stars or neutron stars.
At the end of the life of massive stars, they exhaust all the internal thermo-nuclear fuels in their core which becomes the core unstable, which causes the stars’ inner layer gravitationally collapse upon itself and the outer layer of the star to be blown away. When this happens, it causes a supernova. A supernova is a powerful explosion of a star that blasts part into space.
The structure of black holes is calculated in detail from Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity. The singularity initiates the center of a black hole with zero volume and infinite density that pulls in all matter and energy that comes inside the event horizon. The radius of the event horizon is defined by the Schwarzschild radius. Inside the event horizon, the escape velocity exceeds the light speed; therefore, the light rays cannot escape into space.
Types of Black Holes
Scientists assume that the size of the smallest black holes is small, like an atom, but the mass of a small black hole is the same as a large mountain.
Another kind of black hole is known as a “Stellar.” Its mass can be up to 20 times more than the solar mass. Many stellar mass black holes can be there in the Earth’s galaxy, which is called the Milky Way.
The largest black holes are known as “Supermassive.” The masses of these black holes are more than 1 million times of sun’s masses. After much research, scientists have found that the center of every large galaxy contains a Supermassive black hole. The Supermassive black hole at the Galactic Center of the Milky Way galaxy is called Sagittarius A. The mass of Sagittarius A is almost equal to 4 million suns which could hold a few million Earths.
Stephen W. Hawking theorized the creation of many tiny black holes, possibly not larger than an asteroid, during the supernova. These primordial tiny black holes lose their mass over time and disappear as a result of Hawking radiation. Although black holes are still theoretical, their existence is supported by numerous observations of the phenomena corresponding to their predicted effects.
How to use the Rabbit vibrator to get Maximum Pleasure!
Well, this piece of information about rabbit vibrators (such as the ones you see here) is no more restricted to only sexperts now. They have been among the most searched sex toys for people worldwide for quite some time. Nevertheless, despite their widespread use, it was not always obvious what they were and the ways to use them to maximize pleasure.
We chose to fix that issue for you because we don’t want you to have to compromise on your orgasms ever. Everything you need to know about using a rabbit vibrator is exclusively below for you!
What is a rabbit vibrator?
Among the most well-known and recognized sex objects available today are rabbit vibrators. It is the first vibrator that could be utilized both inside and out was created by Vibratex and was modeled after a little rabbit, which is perceived as a good luck charm in Japan. After making an appearance in the legendary series, Sex and the City in 1999, the vibrators became iconic and have ever since been in high demand. These sex toys come in various sizes and adorable colors, and a few are water resistant, so you can use them in the shower or even while swimming. The safest and most stimulating ways to use a vibrating rabbit are covered in this post. So, lean back, relax, and keep reading.
Types of the rabbit vibrators:
It might surprise you to learn that there are various varieties of rabbit vibrators. We understand; we, too, were taken aback.
- There are plain models, for instance, with only a basic wand and ears and no extraneous details. Others with deeper detailing provide more stimulation during penetration by having a well-defined head with ridges.
- Suppose you don’t like having a buzz on your clitoris. That’s alright! Rather than buzzing, there are types of rabbit vibrators that provide suction stimulation.
- Some vibrators will thrust you forward by themselves, so the only job of yours is to insert it, relax, and take it all in. Then, there are chargeable vibrators that most women prefer. They have USB charging for those who are bored of batteries and forget to keep new sets of it at home (Don’t we all?)
The best way to use this iconic device is…
Many people believe that the only application for rabbit vibrators is vaginal/clitoral dual stimulation. But that’s where you go wrong, as the opposite is true. Even though the vibrating rabbit is made to provide simultaneous stimulation of two locations, there are other ways to use one.
The one unbreakable rule? Always keep a decent lube bottle on hand. Make sure to have the best quality lube as there are so many in the market with synthetic mixes.
Here are a few ideas that will help you explore employing a bunny vibrator:
- Turn it on.
Make sure your battery-operated rabbit dildo has new batteries to work its magic. Make sure you’ve charged it for a good, long time if it’s rechargeable to avoid being hindered by the scourge of SRDS (Sudden Rabbit Death Syndrome).
It’s easy to replace the battery in your rabbit dildo if you’re wondering how to do it. Old batteries should also be removed from the base. You can now add new ones and get going! On rechargeable devices, though, you shouldn’t try this unless you intend to buy a new one.
- Double-handed motion
Nothing should stop you from using both hands to give yourself that mind-boggling pleasure at once, as simple as using the rabbit vibrator exclusively for external pleasure. As the external nub of the vibrator is adjustable enough to move, you can grip it with one hand while holding the handle with the other.
The first thing you need to learn if you want to use the vibrating rabbit for major thrusting movements is the different techniques to handle it, and that happens only with time. You’ll want to be cautious of what you acquire and learn how to use it,
A challenge that almost everybody faces with rabbit vibrators is about moving the handle to move the shaft also rotates the clitoral nub, and based on how you want to try it and how it is built, that nub may travel in unintended directions. Some designs have been well for a wide range of people, but we haven’t yet seen anyone come up with one that fits everyone’s bodies and tastes. Certain toys are better suited to specific body types, and that’s the beauty of it.
- Whatever feels lovely, do it.
There is another way to go by it is not to think so much and try out your techniques in whichever way you will feel good once you are in position, and also have your rabbit dildo locked and activated on your preferred setting combination. You could even put on your underwear and go around your home as if it were your own. Get inventive; just keep in mind that they’re just as enjoyable for solo play as for paired sex.
The majority’s favorite method is saved for last. The grinding motion is one of the easiest methods to operate a rabbit vibrator (assuming you enjoy the sensation). You simply insert the shaft and place the clitoral stimulator wherever you desire it after engaging in any foreplay you may have or may not have done. You keep grinding on the clitoral stimulator after you start using it at your favorite settings, and you may bounce the shaft back and forth to rub against your g-spot.
After going through this in-depth tutorial on how to maximize the usage of your rabbit vibrator found on sites like twicetonight.com for stimulation and the ideal stances to focus on one or more places for a mind-blowing orgasm, you can start your orgasm journey now!
What does an astronomer actually do?
Astronomy is a branch of an amalgam of physics and mathematics that studies celestial bodies, galaxies, and planets. It is the oldest natural science, which helps observe physics at work and understand the entire universe. Thanks to the invention of telescopes have boosted today’s astronomical world.
An astronomer is a person who spends time gathering, analyzing, and creating a more effective search for the data collected. Astronomers focus on their scope of study outside the scope of Earth. Their job is to observe celestial bodies and draw the necessary conclusions.
Job of astronomers
Astronomers also study stars, space, and other bodies within the scope of the universe and understand them to draw scientific conclusions. The center of an astronomer’s galaxy is based on research and observation to create scientific breakthroughs in the field. The tools used by them to achieve these breakthroughs are:
- Telescopes to gather all the light emissions from Earth or outer space
- Spectrographs to break this collected light into different components and study them
- Cameras in the telescopes were used to collect pictures of their research elements
- Computers to analyze and craft conclusions from the received data
Astronomers are generally well-versed in mathematics and physics. A great example of a telescope is the Hubble Space Telescope, which captures images from objects that are millions of light years away from the Earth. The images of galaxies we see today were present billions of years ago, as their light took that much time to reach us!
Astronomers are generally of two types – theoretical and observational astronomers. Theoretical astronomers generally work with investigation models as they cannot see objects millions of light years away. On the other hand, observational astronomers observe galaxies, patents, and their behavior over a long period.
Astronomers also choose from one of the following fields of study:
- Solar astronomy
- Stellar astronomy
- Planetary astronomy
- Galactic Astronomy
- Extragalactic astronomy
Workspace of an astronomer
A typical space for an astronomer is an observatory with labs, like the ones we see at NASA or ISRO. However, depending on their type and field of study, they also work in office environments, researching various topics and jotting points together. Since computer, physics, and mathematics are necessary for this field, people who opt for this career are well-versed in these subjects.
Observational astronomers generally travel to different observatories worldwide to get a better angle for their observation, like the South Pole, Puerto Rico, Europe, Hawaii, Australia, Chile, and many more.
Successful astronomers spend time writing and journaling their observations for publishing in journals or books to keep account of their discoveries. They also write grant proposals for various types of research.
People interested in outer space appearances, with commendable knowledge of mathematics, physics, and research skills, often take up the role of astronomers.
Benefits Of An Astronomical Observatory
Many people find astronomy exciting because it involves studying the galaxy and everything else in the universe. This exposes people to things they may not have seen or heard before. Regarding astronomical observatories, this is one of the most important aspects of learning about and understanding the universe.
An astronomical observatory is any formation that houses telescopes and other accompanying instruments. Typically, this equipment is used to monitor celestial objects. Observatories are labelled according to the segment of the electromagnetic spectrum they are constructed to monitor.
Analyzing the clear sky in a year
One of the most important advantages of an astronomical observatory is the ability to predict when the sky will be clear. Among all meteorological factors, cloud sum or cloud cover appears to be the most important, while Earth’s atmosphere seeing, also known as the Fried parameter, is also essential to maximize monitoring resources.
Astronomers want to know the estimated portion of clear nights throughout the year and whether the sky will be clear in the coming nights. In other words, they anticipate weather forecasts to be as precise and trustworthy as possible.
To track the positions of the celestial bodies
Astronomical observatories are not new; they have been in use since the world’s monolithic age. Astronomical observatories, built then or now, are used to track the positions of celestial bodies such as the sun, moon, and planets.
These were typically used for keeping time or calendering. These tasks have become much easier with the advancement of technology and the discovery and acquisition of advanced instruments. And the current planetary positions and motions are entirely due to the astronomical observatory structures.
It helps in protecting the dark sky and understanding environmental history
The continued increase in artificial light emissions is causing a gradual brightening of the sky at night across most of the world. Some astronomical observatories are also constructed in a dark sky preserve area, also known as a DSP, which normally encircles a campground or observatory and limits different lighting pollution. The dark-sky movement’s overall goal is to encourage astronomy. However, astronomy is not the only reason to preserve the night sky; it also aids in understanding important elements of our natural history.
Useful for tracking wind
Aside from studying the positions of the planets and the dark sky, an astronomical observatory is also used to determine the direction of the wind. Astronomers have traditionally used observatories to track winds in other planets’ lower atmospheres. Astronomers typically study planets that appear to have powerful winds in their upper atmospheres. They measure the wind speed within and around the atmospheres of various planets and compare it to the Earth’s.
Famous Astronomers You Should Know About!
For many years, astronomy has been popular around the world. This is usually the study of almost everything outside of Earth’s atmosphere. Since ancient times, many astronomers have made claims about the galaxy and are well-known for their discoveries. Here is a list of some famous astronomers you should be aware of!
Nicolas Copernicus (1473 – 1543)
Copernicus was a Polish mathematician and astronomer who suggested that the Earth circled the sun. This theory deeply influenced subsequent workers’ perceptions of the universe, but the Catholic church turned it down. Though we still refer to him as Nicolaus Copernicus, his original name was Mikolaj Kopernik or Nicolaus Koppernigk.
His reputation as an astronomer grew after the Fifth Lateran Council chose to optimise the calendar, which was recognised as being out of sync with the seasons. In 1514, the Pope sought advice from experts, one of whom was Copernicus. Copernicus’ cosmology posited an immobile sun close to the centre of the universe and granted the Earth a few distinct movements.
Galileo Galilei (1564 – 1642)
An Italian scientist Galileo Galilei developed the law of dropping objects and validated it with meticulously measured data. He built a telescope to study lunar hollows and found four moons swirling around Jupiter. Despite all of his studies, he was misread in believing that the power exerted on a person was the relative change in particular gravitational force between the body and the material by which it shifted.
Galileo started building a sequence of telescopes with improved optical results than the Dutch component. His first telescope was constructed from readily accessible lenses and had an optical zoom of approximately four times. By the close of 1609, Galileo transformed his telescope to the dark sky and was making astounding breakthroughs.
Christiaan Huygens (1629 – 1695)
Christiaan Huygens, a Dutch mathematician, was the inventor of the very first pendulum clock. This was the same clock that significantly improved time quantification precision. He founded dynamics and also continued to work on astronomy and possibility. Huygens quickly shifted his focus to lens milling and telescope building projects.
Around 1654, he invented a new and improved method of polishing and grinding lenses. Huygens seemed to be capable of proving his ring theory to Boulliau by 1656, and the findings were flagged up to the Paris community, after which he patented the first pendulum clock, which increased the accuracy of measuring time. Huygens reasoned that a pendulum swaying in a wide area could be more helpful at sea, and he designed the cycloidal pendulum.
Johannes Kepler (1571 – 1630)
A German mathematician and astronomer, Johannes Kepler, found that the celestial bodies move in irregular orbits around the sun. He presented three basic rules of the motion of planets that bear his name and made substantial contributions to optics and geometry.
His contributions to mathematics and astronomy can be seen as aiding in the advancement of calculus. Furthermore, he measured the most precise astronomical graphs previously known, the persistent accuracy of which contributed significantly to establishing the facts of heliocentric astronomy.